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Global Smart Beta Strategy Diversification

Posted in Equity Premium, Momentum Investing, Size Effect, Value Premium

Does global diversification improve smart beta (equity factor) investing strategies? In their September 2017 paper entitled "Diversification Strikes Again: Evidence from Global Equity Factors", Jay Binstock, Engin Kose and Michele Mazzoleni examine effects of global diversification on equity factor hedge portfolios. They consider five factors:

  1. High-Minus-low Value (HML) - book equity divided by market capitalization.
  2. Small-Minus-Big Size (SMB) - market capitalization.
  3. Winners-Minus-Losers Momentum (WML) - cumulative return from 12 months ago to one month ago.
  4. Conservative-Minus-Aggressive Investment (CMA) - change in total assets.
  5. Robust-Minus-Weak Operating Profitability (RMW) - total sales minus cost of goods sold, selling, general, and administrative expenses and interest, divided by total assets.

They reform each factor portfolio annually at the end of June by: (1) resetting market capitalizations, segregating firms into large (top 90%) and small (bottom 10%); (2) separately for large and small firms, constructing high (top 30% of factor values) minus low (bottom 30%) long-short sub-portfolios; and, (3) averaging returns for the two sub-portfolios to generate factor portfolio returns. They lag firm accounting data by at least six months between fiscal year end and portfolio formation date. They define eight global regions: U.S., Japan, Germany, UK, France, Canada, Other Europe and Asia Pacific excluding Japan. When measuring diversification effects, they consider relatedness of country markets and variation over time. Using the specified firm accounting data and monthly stock returns during October 1990 through February 2016, they find that:

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