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Investing Research Articles

SMA Signal Effectiveness Across Stock ETFs

Simple moving averages (SMA) are perhaps the most widely used and simplest market regime indicators. For example, many investors estimate that a stock index, exchange-traded fund (ETF) or individual stock priced above (below) its 200-day SMA is in a good (bad) regime. Do SMA signals/signal combinations usefully and consistently distinguish good and bad regimes across different kinds of U.S. stock ETFs? To investigate, we test regime signals of 50-day, 100-day and 200-day SMAs and combinations of them across broad equity market (DIASPYIWBIWM and QQQ), equity style (IWDIWFIWN and IWO) and equity sector (XLBXLEXLFXLIXLKXLPXLUXLV and XLY) ETFs. We consider also three individual stocks: Apple (AAPL), Berkshire Hathaway (BRK-B) and Wal-Mart (WMT). We focus on compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for comparisons, but also look at a few other performance metrics. Using daily dividend-adjusted closes of these 18 ETFs and three stocks during late July 2000 (limited by IWN and IWO) through mid-January 2019, we find that: Keep Reading

Sloppy Selling of Expert Traders?

Do expert investors (institutional stock portfolio managers) add value both by buying future outperforming stocks and by selling future underperforming stocks? In their December 2018 paper entitled “Selling Fast and Buying Slow: Heuristics and Trading Performance of Institutional Investors”, Klakow Akepanidtaworn, Rick Di Mascio, Alex Imas and Lawrence Schmidt examine trade decisions of experienced institutional (e.g., pension fund) stock portfolio managers to determine whether they buy and sell shrewdly. In their main tests, they evaluate: (1) positions added versus randomly buying more shares of some stock already in the portfolio: and, (2) positions liquidated versus randomly selling some other holding that was not traded on that date. Using data for 783 portfolios involving 4.4 million trades (2.0 million sells and 2.4 million buys), and prices for assets held and traded in U.S. dollars, during January 2000 through March 2016, they find that:

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Stock Market Valuation Ratio Trends

To determine whether the stock market is expensive or cheap, some experts use aggregate valuation ratios, either trailing or forward-looking, such as earnings-price ratio (E/P) and dividend yield. Operating under a belief that such ratios are mean-reverting, most imminently due to movement of stock prices, these experts expect high (low) future stock market returns when these ratios are high (low). Where are the ratios now? Using recent actual and forecasted earnings and dividend data from Standard & Poor’s, we find that: Keep Reading

Weekly Summary of Research Findings: 1/28/19 – 2/1/19

Below is a weekly summary of our research findings for 1/28/19 through 2/1/19. These summaries give you a quick snapshot of our content the past week so that you can quickly decide what’s relevant to your investing needs.

Subscribers: To receive these weekly digests via email, click here to sign up for our mailing list. Keep Reading

Classic Cars as an Alternative Investment

Are some types of cars attractive alternative investments? In their September 2018 paper entitled “My Kingdom for a Horse (or a Classic Car)”, Dries Laurs and Luc Renneboog investigate price determinants and investment performance of classic cars from veteran cars (built 1888-1907) through modern classics (1975-1990). They estimate returns and risks for several classic car price indexes via a hedonic price methodology that accounts for physical attributes (such as engine displacement), condition, rarity, uniqueness and provenance. They then compare results to those for financial and other real asset classes. Using a sample of 29,002 global auction sales with hedonic model inputs, plus U.S. inflation data and price series for other asset classes, during 1998 through 2017, they find that:

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Momentum Strategy, Value Strategy and Trading Calendar Updates

We have updated monthly Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy (SACEMS) winners and associated performance data at “Momentum Strategy”. We have updated monthly Simple Asset Class ETF Value Strategy (SACEVS) allocations and associated performance data at “Value Strategy”. We have also updated performance data for the “Combined Value-Momentum Strategy”.

We have updated the “Trading Calendar” to incorporate data for January 2019.

Preliminary Momentum Strategy and Value Strategy Updates

The home page“Momentum Strategy” and “Value Strategy” now show preliminary Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy (SACEMS) and Simple Asset Class ETF Value Strategy (SACEVS) positions for February 2019. For SACEMS, the top three positions are unlikely to change by the close. For SACEVS, allocations may shift modestly at the close.

SACEMS with Momentum Breadth Crash Protection

In response to “SACEMS with SMA Filter”, a subscriber suggested instead crash protection via momentum breadth (proportion of assets with positive momentum) by:

  1. Switching to 100% cash when fewer than four of eight Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy (SACEMS) non-cash assets have positive past returns.
  2. Scaling from cash into winners when four to eight risk assets have positive past returns (no cash for eight).
  3. Replacing U.S. Treasury bills (T-bills), a proxy for broker money market rates, with iShares Barclays 7-10 Year Treasury Bond (IEF) as “Cash.”

To investigate, we each month rank assets from the following SACEMS universe based on total returns over a specified lookback interval. We also each month measure momentum breadth for the eight non-cash assets using the same lookback interval.

PowerShares DB Commodity Index Tracking (DBC)
iShares MSCI Emerging Markets Index (EEM)
iShares MSCI EAFE Index (EFA)
SPDR Gold Shares (GLD)
iShares Russell 2000 Index (IWM)
SPDR S&P 500 (SPY)
iShares Barclays 20+ Year Treasury Bond (TLT)
Vanguard REIT ETF (VNQ)
3-month Treasury bills (Cash)

While emphasizing the suggested momentum breadth crash protection threshold, we look at all possible thresholds. While emphasizing a baseline lookback interval, we consider lookback intervals ranging from one to 12 months for the suggested momentum breadth threshold. We focus on compound annual growth rates (CAGR) and maximum drawdowns (MaxDD) for the equal-weighted (EW) Top 3 SACEMS portfolio, but also look at Top 1 and EW Top 2. We also look at EW Top 3 portfolio turnover. Using monthly dividend-adjusted closing prices for SACEMS assets and IEF and the T-bill yield during February 2006 (the earliest all ETFs are available) through December 2018, we find that: Keep Reading

Mutual Fund Hot Hand Performance

A subscriber inquired about a “hot hand” strategy that each year picks the top performer from a family of diversified equity mutual funds (not including sector funds) and holds that winner the next year. To evaluate this strategy, we consider Vanguard diversified equity mutual funds with inceptions no later than September 2011. The test period is the lifetime of SPDR S&P 500 (SPY), which serves as a benchmark. We assume no costs or holding period constraints/delays for switching from one fund to another. We also simplify calculations by assuming that end-of-year “hot hand” fund identification and fund switches occur simultaneously (in other words, we can accurately rank mutual funds one day before the end of the year). Using monthly total returns for SPY and for Vanguard diversified equity mutual funds as available during December 1992  through December 2018, we find that:

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Book-to-Market Volatility as Stock Return Predictor

Do investors systematically undervalue stocks that have relatively large book-to-market fluctuations? In their December 2018 paper entitled “The Value Uncertainty Premium”, Turan Bali, Luca Del Viva, Menna El Hefnawy and Lenos Trigeorgis test whether book-to-market volatility relates positively to future returns. They specify book-to-market volatility as standard deviation of daily estimated book-to-market ratios divided by their average over the past 12 months. They estimate book value using the most recent quarterly balance sheet plus analyst forecasts of net income minus expected dividends since that quarter. They lag all accounting data three months and analyst forecasts one month to avoid look-ahead bias. They then each month starting January 1986 rank stocks into tenths (deciles) by book-to-market volatility and reform a hedge portfolio that is long (short) the highest (lowest) decile. Using monthly and daily returns and firm accounting data for a broad sample of non-financial U.S. stocks and data for a large set of control variables during January 1985 through December 2016, they find that:

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