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Value Premium

Is there a reliable benefit from conventional value investing (based on the book-to-market value ratio)? these blog entries relate to the value premium.

Expansive Value vs. Growth Update

How does the value premium fare when analysis appends data from the last few years to the data used in seminal studies? Does it persist, both in the U.S. and worldwide? In their October 2008 paper entitled “Value vs. Glamour: A Global Phenomenon”, the Brandes Institute refines and extends the duration of past value-growth research and expands its reach to global equity markets. The research focuses on price-to-book value ratio (P/B) as the principal value indicator, but also considers price-to-cash flow ratio (P/CF) and price-to-earnings ratio (P/E). Using stock returns and firm fundamentals for a broad sample of U.S. companies over the period April 1968-April 2008, and comparable data for 23 other country equity markets over the period June 1980-June 2008, they conclude that: Keep Reading

The Countercyclical Value Premium?

Does the value premium vary systematically with the state of the economy? More specifically, do value and growth stocks respond differently to negative macroeconomic shocks? In their September 2008 paper entitled “Value versus Growth: Time-Varying Expected Stock Returns”, Huseyin Gulen, Yuhang Xing and Lu Zhang investigate the relationship between economic conditions (recession or expansion) and the value premium. Using monthly returns for a broad sample of stocks over the period 1954-2007 (648 months), along with contemporaneous firm fundamentals and macroeconomic data, they conclude that: Keep Reading

A Retrospective Value-Growth Contest

Do equity investors systematically overpay for growth? In the September 2008 draft of their paper entitled “Clairvoyant Value and the Value Effect”, Robert Arnott, Feifei Li and Katrina Sherrerd compare the past prices of stocks with the discounted value of their actual subsequent cash flows (clairvoyant value) to measure the extent to which the market correctly anticipates firm growth. Using stock price and firm fundamentals data from the end of 1956 through the end of 2007 (51 years), they conclude that: Keep Reading

Enhancing Momentum Returns with Style

Do growth and value investing styles have momentum? If so, can investors/traders enhance momentum trading returns by accounting for the stylishness of stocks (the degree to which they fit into either a growth or value style)? In their August 2008 paper entitled “Style Investing, Co-movement and Return Predictability”, Sunil Wahal and Deniz Yavuz measure returns from the combination of stock momentum and stock stylishness. They consider momentum portfolio formation and holding intervals of three, six and 12 months, with an intervening skipped month. They define stock stylishness (but do not use that term) as the degree of stock price co-movement with either growth stocks or value stocks over the past three months. Using monthly returns, book-to-market ratios and market capitalizations for a broad set of stocks over the period 1965-2006, they conclude that: Keep Reading

Value Premium and Size Effect in Australia

Do stocks in Australia confirm pervasiveness of the value premium and the size effect? In their August 2008 paper entitled “Size and Book-to-market Factors in Australia”, Michael O’Brien, Tim Brailsford and Clive Gaunt measure the value premium and the size effect in the Australian market. Using company-specific accounting information from annual reports and contemporaneous stock prices for 98% of all Australian listed firms during 1982-2006 (25 years), they conclude that: Keep Reading

Institutional Trading, Returns and Strength of Anomalies

Are there exploitable differences in returns for stocks with heavy versus light institutional trading activity? In his March 2008 paper entitled “Trader Composition and the Cross-Section of Stock Returns”, Tao Shu analyzes the impact of institutional trading activity on the returns of individual stocks and on the strength of the momentum effect, post earnings-announcement drift (PEAD), the value premium and the investment effect. He calculates institutional trading activity at a quarterly frequency by dividing the aggregate absolute change in reported institutional holdings of a stock by the contemporaneous total quarterly trading volume for the stock. Using holdings data as reported via SEC Form 13F and associated stock trading volume and return data for the period 1980-2005, he concludes that: Keep Reading

The Behavioral Asset Pricing Model

Do investors price stocks based mostly on rational analysis or feelings? In their February 2008 paper entitled “Affect in a Behavioral Asset Pricing Model”, Meir Statman, Kenneth Fisher and Deniz Anginer use survey results to investigate both the objective and subjective (perceived) connections between risk and return. Using results of: (1) the 1982-2006 annual Fortune surveys of senior executives, directors and security analysts regarding the long-term investment value of companies; and (2) May and July 2007 surveys of high-net worth clients of a large investment firm, they conclude that: Keep Reading

Fama and French Dissect Anomalies

Which stock return anomalies are trustworthy, and which are not? In the June 2007 draft of their paper entitled “Dissecting Anomalies”, Eugene Fama and Kenneth French apply both sorts and regressions to examine the robustness of the momentum, net stock issuance, accruals, profitability and asset growth anomalies. They note that sorts on an anomaly variable offer a simple picture of how average returns vary, but microcaps (a few big stocks) can dominate the performance of a sort-based equal-weighted (value-weighted) hedge portfolio. In addition, sorts are ill-suited to determinations of: (1) the exact relationship between an anomaly variable and returns, and (2) relationships among anomalies. They note also that extreme behavior by microcaps and outliers generally can distort inference from regressions. Using a robust set of firm data for a broad set of U.S. stocks allocated to three size groups (microcap, small and big) over the period 1963-2005, they conclude that: Keep Reading

Combined Value-Momentum Tactical Asset Class Allocation

Are value and momentum anomalies reliably present across international asset classes? If so, can investors exploit them to generate abnormal returns? In the December 2007 version of their paper entitled “Global Tactical Cross-Asset Allocation: Applying Value and Momentum Across Asset Classes”, David Blitz and Pim van Vliet examine global tactical asset allocation strategies across a broad range of asset classes based on both value (asset yield or earnings yield) and momentum (both short-term and long-term). These strategies weight asset classes according to volatility, with higher (lower) weights assigned to classes with lower (higher) volatilities. Using price and yield data for 12 international asset classes spanning January 1985 through September 2007, they conclude that: Keep Reading

Growth Versus Value and the Yield Curve

A reader inquires: “Ken Fisher did a statistical study in his book, The Only Three Questions That Count: Investing by Knowing What Others Don’t, which states that growth (value) is in favor when the yield curve flattens (steepens). Any truth to this?” To test this hypothesis, we compare the performances of paired growth and value indexes/funds as the spread between the yields on the 10-year Treasury Note (T-note) and the 90-day Treasury Bill (T-bill) varies. Using monthly and quarterly adjusted (for dividends) return data for a pair of growth-value indexes and a pair of growth-value mutual funds, along with contemporaneous T-note and T-bill yield data, we find that: Keep Reading

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