### Real Interest Rates and Asset Returns

**June 28, 2021** - Bonds, Economic Indicators, Equity Premium, Gold

How sensitive are returns of stocks, bonds and gold to levels real interest rates (nominal rates minus inflation)? To investigate, we consider three nominal interest rates and two measures of inflation, as follows:

- 3-month U.S. Treasury Bill Yield (3-month).
- 1-year U.S. Treasury Constant Maturity Rate (1-year).
- 10-year Treasury Constant Maturity Rate (10-year).
- Personal Consumption Expenditures: Chain-type Price Index (PCEPI).
- Personal Consumption Expenditures Excluding Food and Energy: Chain-Type Price Index (Core PCEPI).

These choices offer six alternative real interest rates. We use end-of-month interest rates and inflation measures lagged by one month to account for release delay. We use the S&P 500 Index (SP500) capital gain only, the 10-year yield (with bond prices moving inversely) and spot gold price, all measured end-of-month, to represent returns for stocks, bonds and gold. We then relate monthly changes in real interest rates to asset class monthly returns in two ways: (1) calculate correlations of monthly real interest rates to asset class returns for each of the next 12 months to get a sense of how real rates lead asset returns; and, (2) calculate average asset class monthly returns by ranked tenths (deciles) of prior-month real interest rates to discover any non-linear relationships. Using monthly PCEPI and Core PCEPI since January 1961, interest rates since January 1962, SP500 level since December 1961 and spot gold price since December 1974 (when controls are removed), all through May 2021, *we find that:*