### U.S. Equity Turn-of-the-Month as a Diversifying Portfolio

**November 26, 2018** - Bonds, Calendar Effects, Equity Premium, Momentum Investing, Size Effect, Strategic Allocation, Value Premium

Is the U.S. equity turn-of-the-month (TOTM) effect exploitable as a diversifier of other assets? In their October 2018 paper entitled “A Seasonality Factor in Asset Allocation”, Frank McGroarty, Emmanouil Platanakis, Athanasios Sakkas and Andrew Urquhart test U.S. asset allocation strategies that include a TOTM portfolio as an asset. The TOTM portfolio buys each stock at the open on the last trading day of each month and sells at the close on the third trading day of the following month, earning zero return the rest of the time. They consider four asset universes with and without the TOTM portfolio:

- A conventional stocks-bonds mix.
- The equity market portfolio.
- The equity market portfolio, a small size portfolio and a value portfolio.
- The equity market portfolio, a small size portfolio, a value portfolio and a momentum winners portfolio.

They consider six sophisticated asset allocation methods:

- Mean-variance optimization.
- Optimization with higher moments and Constant Relative Risk Aversion.
- Bayes-Stein shrinkage of estimated returns.
- Bayesian diffuse-prior.
- Black-Litterman.
- A combination of allocation methods.

They consider three risk aversion settings and either a 60-month or a 120-month lookback interval for input parameter measurement. To assess exploitability, they set trading frictions at 0.50% of traded value for equities and 0.17% for bonds. Using monthly data as specified above during July 1961 through December 2015, *they find that:*