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Momentum Investing

Do financial market prices reliably exhibit momentum? If so, why, and how can traders best exploit it? These blog entries relate to momentum investing/trading.

Simple Asset Class Leveraged ETF Momentum Strategy

Subscribers have asked whether substituting leveraged exchange-traded funds (ETF) in the “Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy” (SACEMS) might enhance performance. To investigate, we execute the strategy with the following eight 2X leveraged ETFs, plus cash:

DB Commodity Double Long (DYY)
ProShares Ultra MSCI Emerging Markets (EET)
ProShares Ultra MSCI EAFE (EFO)
ProShares Ultra Gold (UGL)
ProShares Ultra S&P500 (SSO)
ProShares Ultra Russell 2000 (UWM)
ProShares Ultra Real Estate (URE)
ProShares Ultra 20+ Year Treasury (UBT)
3-month Treasury bills (Cash)

We consider portfolios of Top 1, equally weighted (EW) Top 2 and EW Top 3 past winners. We include as benchmarks: an equally weighted portfolio of all ETFs, rebalanced monthly (EW All); buying and holding SSO (SSO); and, holding SSO when the S&P 500 Index is above its 10-month simple moving average (SMA10) and Cash when the index is below its SMA10 (SSO:SMA10). Using monthly adjusted closing prices for the specified ETFs and the yield for Cash over the period January 2010 (the earliest month prices for all eight ETFs are available) through January 2019, we find that: Keep Reading

Global Factor Premiums Over the Very Long Run

Do very old data confirm reliability of widely accepted asset return factor premiums? In their January 2019 paper entitled “Global Factor Premiums”, Guido Baltussen, Laurens Swinkels and Pim van Vliet present replication (1981-2011) and out-of-sample (1800-1908 and 2012-2016) tests of six global factor premiums across four asset classes. The asset classes are equity indexes, government bonds, commodities and currencies. The factors are: time series (intrinsic or absolute) momentum, designated as trend; cross-sectional (relative) momentum, designated as momentum; value; carry (long high yields and short low yields); seasonality (rolling “hot” months); and, betting against beta (BAB). They explicitly account for p-hacking (data snooping bias) and further explore economic explanations of global factor premiums. Using monthly global data as available during 1800 through 2016 to construct the six factors and four asset class return series, they find that:

Keep Reading

SACEMS with Risk Parity?

Subscribers asked whether risk parity might work better than equal weighting of winners within the Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy (SACEMS), which each month selects the best performers over a specified lookback interval from among the following eight asset class exchange-traded funds (ETF), plus cash:

PowerShares DB Commodity Index Tracking (DBC)
iShares MSCI Emerging Markets Index (EEM)
iShares MSCI EAFE Index (EFA)
SPDR Gold Shares (GLD)
iShares Russell 2000 Index (IWM)
SPDR S&P 500 (SPY)
iShares Barclays 20+ Year Treasury Bond (TLT)
Vanguard REIT ETF (VNQ)
3-month Treasury bills (Cash)

To investigate, we focus on the SACEMS Top 3 portfolio and compare equal weighting to risk parity weights. We calculate risk parity weights at the end of each month by:

  • Calculating daily asset return volatilities over the last 63 trading days (about three months, as suggested). This step includes Cash, which has very low volatility.
  • Picking the volatilities of the Top 3 momentum winners.
  • Weighting each winner by the inverse of its volatility.
  • Scaling winner weights such that the total of the three allocations is 100%. This step essentially puts the entire portfolio into Cash when any of the Top 3 is Cash.

We use gross compound annual growth rates (CAGR) and maximum drawdowns (MaxDD) to compare strategies. We check robustness by trying lookback intervals of one to 12 months for both momentum ranking and volatility estimation (increments of 21 trading days for the latter). Using monthly dividend-adjusted closing prices for asset class proxies and the yield for Cash during February 2006 (when all ETFs are first available) through December 2018, we find that: Keep Reading

Mutual Fund Exploitation of Equity Factor Premiums

How well do mutual funds exploit theoretical (academic) equity factor premiums, and how well do investors exploit such exploitation? In their January 2019 paper entitled “Factor Investing from Concept to Implementation”, Eduard Van Gelderen, Joop Huij and Georgi Kyosev examine: (1) how performances of mutual funds that target equity factor premiums (low beta, size, value, momentum, profitability, investment) compare to that of funds that do not; and, (2) flow-adjusted performances, indicating how much of any outperformance accrues to fund investors. They classify funds empirically based on factor exposures. Using monthly returns and total assets and quarterly turnover and expense ratios for 3,109 actively managed long-only U.S. equity mutual funds with assets over $5 million (1,334 dead and 1,775 live) since January 1990 and for 4,859 (2,000 dead and 2,859 live) similarly specified global mutual funds since January 1991, all through December 2015, along with contemporaneous monthly equity factor returnsthey find that: Keep Reading

SACEMS Based on Martin Ratio?

In response to “Robustness of SACEMS Based on Sharpe Ratio”, a subscriber asked whether Martin ratio might work better than raw returns and Sharpe ratio for ranking assets within the Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy (SACEMS), which each month selects the best performers over a specified lookback interval from among the following eight asset class exchange-traded funds (ETF), plus cash:

PowerShares DB Commodity Index Tracking (DBC)
iShares MSCI Emerging Markets Index (EEM)
iShares MSCI EAFE Index (EFA)
SPDR Gold Shares (GLD)
iShares Russell 2000 Index (IWM)
SPDR S&P 500 (SPY)
iShares Barclays 20+ Year Treasury Bond (TLT)
Vanguard REIT ETF (VNQ)
3-month Treasury bills (Cash)

To investigate, we focus on the SACEMS equally weighted (EW) Top 3 portfolio and compare outcomes across lookback intervals ranging from one to 12 months for the following three asset ranking metrics:

  1. Raw return – cumulative total return over the lookback interval.
  2. Sharpe ratio (SR) – average daily excess return (asset return minus T-bill return) divided by standard deviation of daily excess returns over the lookback interval, with months approximated as 21 trading days. We set SR for Cash at zero (though it is actually zero divided by zero).
  3. Martin ratio (MR) – average daily excess return divided by the Ulcer Index calculated from daily returns over the lookback interval, with months again approximated as 21 trading days.

We employ gross compound annual growth rates (CAGR) and maximum drawdowns (MaxDD) to compare ranking metrics. Using monthly dividend-adjusted closing prices for asset class proxies and the yield for Cash during February 2006 (when all ETFs are first available) through December 2018, we find that: Keep Reading

SACEMS with Momentum Breadth Crash Protection

In response to “SACEMS with SMA Filter”, a subscriber suggested instead crash protection via momentum breadth (proportion of assets with positive momentum) by:

  1. Switching to 100% cash when fewer than four of eight Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy (SACEMS) non-cash assets have positive past returns.
  2. Scaling from cash into winners when four to eight risk assets have positive past returns (no cash for eight).
  3. Replacing U.S. Treasury bills (T-bills), a proxy for broker money market rates, with iShares Barclays 7-10 Year Treasury Bond (IEF) as “Cash.”

To investigate, we each month rank assets from the following SACEMS universe based on total returns over a specified lookback interval. We also each month measure momentum breadth for the eight non-cash assets using the same lookback interval.

PowerShares DB Commodity Index Tracking (DBC)
iShares MSCI Emerging Markets Index (EEM)
iShares MSCI EAFE Index (EFA)
SPDR Gold Shares (GLD)
iShares Russell 2000 Index (IWM)
SPDR S&P 500 (SPY)
iShares Barclays 20+ Year Treasury Bond (TLT)
Vanguard REIT ETF (VNQ)
3-month Treasury bills (Cash)

While emphasizing the suggested momentum breadth crash protection threshold, we look at all possible thresholds. While emphasizing a baseline lookback interval, we consider lookback intervals ranging from one to 12 months for the suggested momentum breadth threshold. We focus on compound annual growth rates (CAGR) and maximum drawdowns (MaxDD) for the equal-weighted (EW) Top 3 SACEMS portfolio, but also look at Top 1 and EW Top 2. We also look at EW Top 3 portfolio turnover. Using monthly dividend-adjusted closing prices for SACEMS assets and IEF and the T-bill yield during February 2006 (the earliest all ETFs are available) through December 2018, we find that: Keep Reading

Mutual Fund Hot Hand Performance

A subscriber inquired about a “hot hand” strategy that each year picks the top performer from a family of diversified equity mutual funds (not including sector funds) and holds that winner the next year. To evaluate this strategy, we consider Vanguard diversified equity mutual funds with inceptions no later than September 2011. The test period is the lifetime of SPDR S&P 500 (SPY), which serves as a benchmark. We assume no costs or holding period constraints/delays for switching from one fund to another. We also simplify calculations by assuming that end-of-year “hot hand” fund identification and fund switches occur simultaneously (in other words, we can accurately rank mutual funds one day before the end of the year). Using monthly total returns for SPY and for Vanguard diversified equity mutual funds as available during December 1992  through December 2018, we find that:

Keep Reading

Adjust the SACEMS Lookback Interval?

The Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy (SACEMS) each month picks winners based on total return over a specified ranking (lookback) interval from the following eight asset class exchange-traded funds (ETF), plus cash:

PowerShares DB Commodity Index Tracking (DBC)
iShares MSCI Emerging Markets Index (EEM)
iShares MSCI EAFE Index (EFA)
SPDR Gold Shares (GLD)
iShares Russell 2000 Index (IWM)
SPDR S&P 500 (SPY)
iShares Barclays 20+ Year Treasury Bond (TLT)
Vanguard REIT ETF (VNQ)
3-month Treasury bills (Cash)

This set of ETFs offers: (1) opportunities to capture momentum across global developed and emerging equity markets, large and small U.S. equities, bonds and commodities; (2) gold and cash as safe havens; (3) histories long enough for backtesting across multiple market environments; and, (4) simplicity of computation and recognition of the trade-off between number of ETFs and trading frictions. As historical data accumulate, we can estimate an increasingly robust optimal lookback interval. Should we change the baseline lookback interval at this point? To investigate, we revisit relevant analyses and conduct further robustness tests, with focus on the equal-weighted (EW) Top 3 SACEMS portfolio. Using monthly dividend-adjusted closing prices for asset class proxies and the yield for Cash during February 2006 (when all ETFs are first available) through December 2018, we find that: Keep Reading

Trend Following: Momentum or Moving Average?

Are moving averages or intrinsic (time series) momentum theoretically better for following trends in asset prices? In their November 2018 paper entitled “Trend Following with Momentum Versus Moving Average: A Tale of Differences”, Valeriy Zakamulin and Javier Giner compare from a theoretical perspective effectiveness of four popular trend following rules:

  1. Intrinsic Momentum – buy (sell) when the closing price at the end of a specified lookback interval is greater (less) than the closing price at the beginning of the lookback interval.
  2. Simple Moving Average – buy (sell) when the closing price at the end of a specified lookback interval is greater (less) than the equally weighted average closing price during the lookback interval.
  3. Linear Moving Average – buy (sell) when the closing price at the end of a specified lookback interval is greater (less) than the linearly weighted (weights linearly increasing to the most recent) average closing price during the lookback interval.
  4. Exponential Moving Average – buy (sell) when the closing price at the end of a specified lookback interval is greater (less) than the exponentially weighted (weights exponentially increasing to the most recent) average closing price during the lookback interval.

They transform these price rules into return-based versions and create a trend model as an autoregressive return process. They then explore interactions of the trading rules with the trend model. Based on this theoretical approach, they conclude that: Keep Reading

Momentum and Bubble Stocks

Do “bubble” stocks (those with high shorting demand and small borrowing supply) exhibit unconventional momentum behaviors? In their December 2018 paper entitled “Overconfidence, Information Diffusion, and Mispricing Persistence”, Kent Daniel, Alexander Klos and Simon Rottke examine how momentum effects for bubble stocks differ from conventional momentum effects. They each month sort stocks into groups independently as follows:

  1. Momentum winners (losers) are the 30% of stocks with the highest (lowest) returns from one year ago to one month ago, incorporating a skip-month.
  2. Stocks with high (low) shorting demand are those with the top (bottom) 30% of short interest ratios.
  3. Stocks with small (large) borrowing supply are those with the top (bottom) 30% of institutional ownerships.

They then use intersections of these groups to reform 27 value-weighted portfolios. Bubble (constrained) stocks are those in the intersection of high shorting demand and low institutional ownership, including both momentum winners and losers. For purity, they further split bubble losers into those that were or were not also bubble winners within the past five years. Using monthly and daily returns, market capitalizations and trading volumes for a broad sample of U.S. common stocks, monthly short interest ratios and quarterly institutional ownership data from SEC Form 13F filings during July 1988 through June 2018, they find that: Keep Reading

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