Momentum Investing

Do financial market prices reliably exhibit momentum? If so, why, and how can traders best exploit it? These blog entries relate to momentum investing/trading.

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Optimal Monthly Cycle for Sector ETF Momentum Strategy?

In response to “Optimal Monthly Cycle for Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy?”, a subscriber asked about the optimal monthly cycle for “Simple Sector ETF Momentum Strategy”, which each month allocates all funds to the one of the following nine Select Sector Standard & Poor’s Depository Receipts (SPDR) exchange-traded funds (ETF) with the highest total return over the past six months :

Materials Select Sector SPDR (XLB)
Energy Select Sector SPDR (XLE)
Financial Select Sector SPDR (XLF)
Industrial Select Sector SPDR (XLI)
Technology Select Sector SPDR (XLK)
Consumer Staples Select Sector SPDR (XLP)
Utilities Select Sector SPDR (XLU)
Health Care Select Sector SPDR (XLV)
Consumer Discretionary Select SPDR (XLY)

To investigate, we compare 21 variations of the strategy based on shifting the monthly return calculation cycle relative to trading days from the end of the month (EOM). For example, an EOM+5 cycle ranks assets based on closing prices five trading days after EOM each month. Using daily dividend-adjusted closes for the sector ETFs from mid-January 1999 through mid-July 2014 (about 186 months), we find that:

Keep Reading

Impact of Commodities Financialization on Strategies

Has the growing role of financial investors in commodities markets (financialization) weakened performance of widely used momentum and term structure investing strategies? In his July 2014 paper entitled “Strategies Based on Momentum and Term Structure in Financialized Commodity Markets”, Adam Zaremba investigates impacts of financialization of commodity markets on the profitability of momentum and term structure strategies. His base momentum strategy is each month long (short) the half of commodity futures with higher (lower) returns over the past month. His base term structure strategy is long (short) the half of commodity futures with the largest positive or backwardated (negative or contangoed) difference in prices between the nearest and next-nearest contracts. For each commodity futures series and each strategy, he performs double-sorts on strategy parameters and the level of financial investor (non-commercial trader) participation from Commitments of Traders (COT) reports to measure the effects of financialization on strategy performance. All portfolios are equally weighted and fully collateralized. Using monthly total returns for 26 commodity futures series as available and a broad commodities index, along with position data from COT reports, during 1986 through 2013, he finds that: Keep Reading

Effects of Execution Delay on Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy

“Optimal Monthly Cycle for Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy?” investigates whether using a monthly cycle other than end-of-month (EOM) to determine the winning asset improves performance of the “Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy”. This strategy each month allocates all funds to the one of the following eight asset class exchange-traded funds (ETF), or cash, with the highest total return over the past five months:

PowerShares DB Commodity Index Tracking (DBC)
iShares MSCI Emerging Markets Index (EEM)
iShares MSCI EAFE Index (EFA)
SPDR Gold Shares (GLD)
iShares Russell 1000 Index (IWB)
iShares Russell 2000 Index (IWM)
SPDR Dow Jones REIT (RWR)
iShares Barclays 20+ Year Treasury Bond (TLT)
3-month Treasury bills (Cash)

In response, a subscriber asked whether sticking with an EOM cycle for determining the winner, but delaying signal execution, affects strategy performance. To investigate, we compare 23 variations of the strategy that all use EOM to determine the winning asset but shift execution from the contemporaneous EOM to the next open or to closes over the next 21 trading days (about one month). For example, an EOM+5 Close variation uses an EOM cycle to determine winners but delays executions until the close five trading days after EOM. Using daily dividend-adjusted opens and closes for the asset class proxies and the yield for Cash from the end of July 2002 (or inception if not available then) through the end of July 2014 (144 months), we find that: Keep Reading

Models, Trading Calendar and Momentum Strategy Updates

We have updated the Earnings Forecast to incorporate preliminary actual S&P 500 operating earnings for the second quarter of 2014.

We have updated the S&P 500 Market Models summary as follows:

  • Extended Market Models regressions/rolled projections by one month based on data available through July 2014.
  • Updated Market Models backtest charts and the market valuation metrics map based on data available through July 2014.

We have updated the Trading Calendar to incorporate data for July 2014.

We have updated the the monthly asset class momentum winners and associated performance data at Momentum Strategy.

Preliminary Momentum Strategy Update

The home page and “Momentum Strategy” now show preliminary asset class momentum strategy positions for August 2014. The differences in past returns among the top four places are large enough that they are unlikely to change order by the close.

Mutual Fund Hot Hand Performance Robustness Test

“Mutual Fund Hot Hand Performance” tests a “hot hand” strategy that each year picks the top performer from the Vanguard family of diversified equity mutual funds (not including sector funds) and holds that winner the next year. A subscriber suggested a robustness test using the Fidelity family of diversified equity mutual funds. To support the test, we select all Fidelity diversified U.S. and international equity mutual funds that bear no transaction fee, are open to new investors and have a history of at least three years. We consider the total return on the S&P 500 Index (with dividends estimated from Robert Shiller’s data) and SPDR S&P 500 (SPY) as benchmarks. As in the prior analysis of Vanguard funds, we pick end of June to end of the next June for annual return measurement intervals. To simplify analysis, we assume the “hot hand” mutual fund on the next-to-last trading day of June is the same as that for the end of June. We assume that there are no costs or holding period constraints/delay for switching from one fund to another. Using annual returns for the S&P 500 Index plus Shiller’s dividend data and annual returns for SPY and Fidelity diversified equity mutual funds as available from Yahoo!Finance during June 1980 through June 2014, we find that: Keep Reading

Cyclical Behaviors of Size, Value and Momentum in UK

Do the behaviors of the most widely accepted stock market factors (size, book-to-market or value, and momentum) vary with the economic trend? In the June 2014 version of their paper entitled “Macroeconomic Determinants of Cyclical Variations in Value, Size and Momentum premium in the UK”, Golam Sarwar, Cesario Mateus and Natasa Todorovic examine differences in the sensitivities of UK equity market size, value and momentum factor returns (premiums) to changes in broad and specific economic variables. They define the broad economic state each month as upturn (downturn) when the OECD Composite Leading Indicator for the UK increases (decreases) that month. They also consider contributions of six specific variables to economic trend: GDP growth; unexpected inflation (change in CPI); interest rate (3-month UK Treasury bill yield); term spread (10-year UK Treasury bond yield minus 3-month UK Treasury bill yield); credit spread (Moody’s U.S. BBA yield minus 10-year UK government bond yield); and, money supply growth. They lag economic variables by one or two months to align their releases with stock market premium measurements. Using monthly UK size, value and momentum factors and economic data during July 1982 through December 2012, they find that: Keep Reading

Value-Momentum Switching Based on Value Premium Persistence

Can investors exploit monthly persistence in the value premium for U.S. stocks? In his February 2014 paper entitled “Exploiting Factor Autocorrelation to Improve Risk Adjusted Returns”, Kevin Oversby investigates whether investors can exploit the fact that the Fama-French model high-minus-low (HML) value factor exhibits positive monthly autocorrelation (persistence). The HML factor derives from the difference in performance between portfolios of stocks with high and low book-to-market ratios. Prior published research indicates that the value premium concentrates in small firms, so he focuses on stocks with market capitalizations below the NYSE median. His test strategies each month invest in capitalization-weighted small value (small growth or small momentum) Fama-French portfolios when the prior-month sign of the HML factor is positive (negative). The strategies additionally retreat to a risk-free asset (such as U.S. Treasury bills) if the prior-month return for the test strategy is negative. Using HML factor values and monthly portfolio returns for small value, small growth and small momentum Fama-French portfolios, he finds that: Keep Reading

Testing Size, Value and Momentum Return Predictors

Do commonly used indicators reliably predict stock size, value and momentum strategy returns? In the June 2014 version of his paper entitled “A Comprehensive Look at Size, Value and Momentum Return Predictability”, Afonso Januario examines the abilities of 17 fundamental and technical indicators and indicator combinations to anticipate returns for these three factors. He defines factor portfolios based on market capitalization (size), book-to-market ratio (value) and return from 12 months ago to one month ago (momentum), reformed monthly, as follows:

  1. Size = (SmallValue+SmallNeutral+SmallGrowth)/3 - (BigValue+BigNeutral+BigGrowth)/3
  2. Value = (SmallValue+BigValue)/2 – (SmallGrowth+BigGrowth)/2
  3. Momentum = (SmallWinners+BigWinners)/2 – (SmallLosers+BigLosers)/2

He selects the 17 indicators (such as book-to-market ratio, dividend yield, earnings-price ratio, return on equity, lagged return, short interest and implied volatility) from prior published research on predictive variables. He measures indicator values each month as the averages only for stocks in long or short sides (and the spread between them) of each of the above three factor portfolios. He applies linear regressions at monthly and annual frequencies to determine whether an indicator is more effective than the historical average factor portfolio return in predicting future factor portfolio returns. Using relevant sets of data for a broad sample of relatively liquid U.S. stocks from initial set availability (ranging from 1950 to 1995) through 2012, he finds that: Keep Reading

Buffered Winner Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy

“Sticky Winner Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy” tests whether limiting the trading of the “Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy” by holding onto the winner until it drops out of the top three boosts performance of the latter by reducing trading and thereby suppressing trading frictions. A subscriber proposed a more precise approach to limit trading: continue holding a past winner until it loses to a new winner by a significant margin. To investigate whether this approach (Buffered Winner) works, we compare it to the original strategy (Winner), which allocates all funds at the end of each month to the asset class exchange-traded fund (ETF) or cash with the highest total return over the last five months, as applied to the following nine assets:

PowerShares DB Commodity Index Tracking (DBC)
iShares MSCI Emerging Markets Index (EEM)
iShares MSCI EAFE Index (EFA)
SPDR Gold Shares (GLD)
iShares Russell 1000 Index (IWB)
iShares Russell 2000 Index (IWM)
SPDR Dow Jones REIT (RWR)
iShares Barclays 20+ Year Treasury Bond (TLT)
3-month Treasury bills (Cash)

Using monthly adjusted closing prices for the asset class proxies and the yield for Cash over the period July 2002 (or inception if not available then) through June 2014 (144 months), we find that: Keep Reading

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