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Investing Research Articles

3151 Research Articles

What Explanation for Momentum Works Best?

Which of the explanations offered in past research best explains, and potentially justifies belief in persistence of, stock return momentum? In the February 2022 revision of their paper entitled “What Explains Momentum? A Perspective From International Data”, Amit Goyal, Narasimhan Jegadeesh and Avanidhar Subrahmanyam test alternative explanations for momentum as hypothesized in earlier studies on… Keep Reading

SACEMS with Momentum Breadth Protection Update

“SACEMS with Momentum Breadth Crash Protection” evaluates in depth the potential of a simple momentum breadth rule to improve performance of the Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy (SACEMS). This rule forces the model to all cash when fewer than some threshold of the non-cash SACEMS assets have positive returns over a specified lookback interval…. Keep Reading

GDX and GDXJ vs. GLD

How are behaviors of physically backed gold and gold miner exchange-traded funds (ETF) similar and different? To investigate we consider each of VanExk Vectors Gold Miners (GDX) and VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners (GDXJ) versus SPDR Gold Shares (GLD). Using daily returns for GDX since May 2006 and GDXJ since November 2009, and contemporaneous daily returns… Keep Reading

Gas Prices and Future Stock Market Returns

Some experts argue that high (low) gasoline prices mean that consumers must allocate more (less) spending power to fuel, and therefore less (more) to other industries and stocks. Do data support this argument? To check, we relate U.S. stock market returns to changes in U.S. gasoline price changes. Using weekly average retail prices for regular gasoline in… Keep Reading

Weekly Summary of Research Findings: 3/14/22 – 3/18/22

Below is a weekly summary of our research findings for 3/14/22 through 3/18/22. These summaries give you a quick snapshot of our content the past week so that you can quickly decide what’s relevant to your investing needs. Subscribers: To receive these weekly digests via email, click here to sign up for our mailing list.

Overnight Effect Across Asset Classes?

Does the overnight return effect found pervasively among equity markets, as summarized in “Persistence of Overnight/Intraday Equity Market Return Patterns”, also hold for other asset classes? To investigate, we compare open-to-close (O-C) and close-to-open (C-O) average returns, standard deviations of returns and cumulative performances for the exchange-traded funds (ETF) used as asset class proxies in… Keep Reading

Combining Overnight and TOTM Effects

With reference to “Turn-of-the-Month Effect Persistence and Robustness” and “Persistence of Overnight/Intraday Equity Market Return Patterns”, a subscriber asked about a strategy that is long SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (SPY) only from market close to market open during the turn-of-the-month (TOTM). To investigate, we consider three strategies: TOTM Close-to-Open: long SPY from close-to-open during… Keep Reading

Best Bear Market Asset Class?

A subscriber asked which asset (short stocks, cash, bonds by subclass) is best to hold during equity bear markets. To investigate, we consider two ways to define a bear market: (1) months when SPDR S&P 500 (SPY) is below its 10-month simple moving average (SMA10) at the end of the prior month; and, (2) months… Keep Reading

Stock Market Earnings Yield and Inflation Over the Long Run

…long-run data offers stronger evidence for a stock market model based on the real earnings yield than for a model that compares the earnings yield to the long-term bond yield. It also suggests: (1) a substantial structural break in the relationship between earnings yield and inflation about 1960; and, (2) the possibility of using real earnings yield variability in estimating an expected real earnings yield.


A subscriber proposed adding Utilities Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLU) to the Simple Asset Class ETF Momentum Strategy (SACEMS) asset universe based on the relatively low correlation of XLU with the broad U.S. stock market. To investigate, we: Expand the SACEMS asset universe to include XLU. Generate performance data for this expanded universe for the… Keep Reading